How to choose speakers

If you want to sit at home and enjoy beautiful music, you need to have the most basic audio equipment. For example, a cassette recorder or CD player as the signal source, an audio power amplifier and a pair of speakers and audio signal lines, speaker lines, can form the most basic audio equipment. Among audio equipment, there are CD players and power amplifiers with complex structures, as well as speakers with uncomplicated structures. But among the audio equipment, the one with the most personality and the biggest impact on replaying music is the seemingly simple speaker. So for the replay sound of the speakers, there are so-called "British sound", "American sound", "German sound", "Japanese sound", and there are thousands of yuan and tens of thousands of yuan. Even a pair of speakers of one million yuan.
For music lovers who are not economically ample and audio lovers who want to have fun and real knowledge from their own hands, the most convenient home-made audio equipment is the speaker. As long as you know some regular things in speaker design and production, you can still make a pair of speakers that satisfy yourself.
In the process of speaker production and debugging, the following problems need to be noted.
1. Choose the speaker unit The speaker unit, commonly known as the horn, is the key part of the sound box. Only with the help of a speaker unit can people convert audio electrical signals from CD players and power amplifiers into audible sound signals.
The speaker unit is generally divided into three categories: treble, midrange and bass. Basically belong to the scope of work of each department. For the production of excellent small-caliber woofer (generally refers to the woofer's speaker diameter is less than 6.5 inches), they can generally take into account the role of the midrange speaker; and a well-designed tweeter with sufficient power , You can also take into account the role of some midrange speakers. Therefore, in the case of small bookshelf or floor-standing speakers, it is very common to use only two speaker units, one high and one low. Now let's talk specifically about the choice of speaker unit. String 2
1. How to choose the tweeter unit The tweeter unit, as the name suggests, is a speaker unit for replaying high-frequency sounds. The structure of the tweeter mainly includes horn type, cone type, dome type and aluminum band type.
Due to the strong directivity of the horn-type tweeter, powerful treble can be heard on the front of the horn, which is mostly used for high-power sound reinforcement, conference speakers and a small number of monitor speakers.
The cone type tweeter is too large and heavy, and its high-frequency characteristics are not as good as other types of tweeters. Therefore, it is more common on old speakers and has been gradually eliminated in recent years.
The dome tweeter is currently the most commonly used tweeter in home speakers and small monitor speakers.
The dome tweeter is divided from the dome structure, and can be divided into a positive dome unit and an anti dome unit.
The dome tweeter is divided from the dome material, and is divided into two categories: hard dome and soft dome.
There are several types of diaphragm materials for hard dome tweeters: aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, titanium alloy composite membrane, glass membrane, diamond membrane and so on. The treble reproduced by the hard dome tweeter has a bright tone and a metallic feel. Suitable for playing popular music, movie music and effect music. Processing and making excellent aluminum alloy film, titanium alloy composite film dome tweeter, can also better express classical music and vocals.
There are several kinds of diaphragm materials for soft dome tweeters, such as silk membrane, silk membrane, rubber membrane and bulletproof cloth membrane. The treble of the soft dome tweeter when replaying music is smart and relaxed, and has a very good natural expression. It is especially handy when performing classical music, vocals and other music with standard listening concepts. It is an ideal choice for manufacturing medium and high-end home speakers and small monitor speakers. Especially in recent years, the upper limit frequency of the replay of the silk film and silk film dome treble has reached 40,000 Hz. In theory, the upper limit frequency of the tweeter should reach at least 20000Hz, the higher the better. But the unit with excellent high-frequency upper limit is more expensive. String 6
When playing music on the positive dome tweeter, the horizontal diffusion angle is larger; when playing the music on the anti-dome tweeter, the horizontal radiation angle is small, but the sound is pure and the power is also large.
The ribbon tweeter is a kind of tweeter with a long history and a long history. Only because of its structural factors, it is not an easy thing to really make its high-frequency upper limit frequency high enough and the power large enough, so it is not easy to popularize. The upper grade of the aluminum band tweeter has an upper limit frequency of more than 30000Hz, and the withstand power currently exceeds 150W.
If you are a classical music lover and have strict requirements on the timbre during replay, you may wish to choose soft dome tweeters such as silk film. If your speakers also need to take care of karaoke and play movies, it is better to choose a hard dome unit. Of course, this is not absolute, because the replay sound of the speaker is not only related to the selected unit, but also related to the design of the crossover and the production of the cabinet.
2. Structure of midrange unit Midrange unit generally only has cone and dome. It's just that its size and power are larger than the tweeter and it is more suitable for playing audio. The diaphragm of the midrange unit is mainly made of soft materials such as paper cones and silk membranes, and occasionally there are a small amount of alloy dome diaphragms.
3. How to choose the woofer The structure of the woofer is mostly cone type, and a small amount is flat type.
There are many types of woofer diaphragms, such as aluminum alloy diaphragm, aluminum magnesium alloy diaphragm, ceramic diaphragm, carbon fiber diaphragm, bulletproof cloth diaphragm, glass fiber diaphragm, acrylic diaphragm, paper diaphragm, etc. String 2
Paper diaphragm is also called speaker cone. There are many types of paper diaphragms, including paper cones, compact paper cones, paper-based wool cones, and reinforced paper cones. Bass units using aluminum alloy and aluminum-magnesium alloy diaphragms are generally smaller in caliber and bear more power, while bass units using reinforced paper cones and fiberglass diaphragms are more accurate when replaying music, and the overall balance is good.
When selecting a speaker unit, the withstand power of the tweeter is generally not less than one-tenth of the woofer; if it is a speaker made with two-way frequency division and two units, the withstand power of the tweeter is even higher.
When making a three-way speaker, it is enough that the mid-range unit can withstand a third of the bass speaker.
When selecting a speaker unit, it is best to select the same impedance. Common low-impedance speaker units are generally classified into 4Ω and 8Ω.
When selecting the speaker unit, it is also necessary to choose the same sensitivity level, generally 86dBW · m as the medium sensitivity. The low sensitivity speaker is lower than 84dB, and the high sensitivity speaker is higher than 90dB.
If the impedance and sensitivity are too different when selecting a speaker unit, you will encounter the problems of poor design of the crossover and the imbalance of sound pressure in each frequency band when making the speaker.
Of course, when making a two-way speaker, the lower limit frequency of the tweeter is lower than 2kHz, and the upper limit frequency of the woofer is higher than 4kHz, which will bring a lot of convenience when adjusting the speaker.
Second, the selection and production of frequency divider After you have selected the speaker unit, it is necessary to select and make the frequency divider. The frequency divider is divided into two general categories of frequency divider and electronic frequency divider. String 7
Electronic frequency divider is the tiny audio signal transmitted from the signal source directly into the electronic frequency divider. The electronic frequency division divides the signal of the full frequency band (from bass to treble) into treble and bass signals, and transmits them to the corresponding power amplifier for amplification, and then pushes the corresponding speaker unit to emit sound. See Figure 1. Electronic crossover is a relatively complicated music replay system with good replay effect. In addition to the frequency divider, the electronic two-way frequency system also requires 4 channels of audio power amplifiers. The electronic three-way system requires a 6-channel power amplifier, while the electronic four-way system requires 8 independent channel power amplifiers. The advantage of electronic frequency division is that the replay sound is good, and the adjustment of the balance between each frequency band is simple and easy, but the production cost is higher.

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